GR spelling follows English phonetics more closely than does PY, though in many cases the two are identical. The main departures from PY for the basic (Tone 1) forms are as follows:
||el, liengl [see Erlhuah]
||-ü [u umlaut]
||liu, jiu, iuan
||lü, ju, yuan
|tz [not dz!]
||shy, jy, ry
||shi, zhi, ri
The following important points are immediately apparent from the table:
- the vowels
-i and -y (as in PY qi and chi) are always distinguished in GR
ch, j, sh when followed by -i- represent the palatal consonants (PY q, j, x); otherwise they represent the retroflex consonants (PY ch, zh, sh): eg chiun, shi = qun, xi, while chuen, shy = chun, shi.
-iu represents the rounded front vowel ü ( u-umlaut): eg chiu, liu = qu, lü [u umlaut]; -iou is used for the diphthong spelt -iu in PY (eg chiou, liou = qiu, liu).
- Basic (Tone 1) GR forms begin with
i- or u-, not y- or w-: this spelling is used only in tones 2, 3 and 4.
It's a fairly safe bet that any sound not mentioned in the table is written as in PY.